Need to talk? Call 1800 882 436.
It's a free call with a maternal child health nurse. *call charges may apply from your mobile

Is it an emergency? Dial 000
If you need urgent medical help, call triple zero immediately.

beginning of content

Giving birth - second stage of labour

6-minute read

What is the second stage of labour?

The second stage of labour begins when your cervix is open (dilated) to 10 centimetres. Your midwife may check how dilated your cervix is by doing an internal examination.

You may not feel an urge to push straightaway. This is called the passive second stage. It becomes the active second stage when you have the urge to push and ends when your baby is born.

Your contractions will be longer and more powerful than they were during first stage of labour, but they may also be slightly most spaced out. This gives your body time to rest. Each contraction pushes your baby’s head further down your pelvis, slowly edging the baby closer to being born.

You may feel an urge to push to help your baby be born. This is because the baby’s head is pressing down on your pelvic area. You will feel your baby's head moving through your pelvis, and a stretching or burning feeling as the skin around your vagina and perineum make room for your baby to be born.

How long can the second stage last?

If your labour lasts for more than 2 hours, or if you or your baby become unwell, your midwife may recommend that they give you more help. This could be by manually helping your baby to come out. This is done using forceps or suction.

What pain relief can I have and when can I have it?

Your options for pain relief will depend on where you choose to give birth and how close your baby is to being born. For example, if your baby is close to being born, there may not be time for you to have an epidural, and other medications, like morphine, may not be recommended.

It is always best to talk to your midwife or doctor, since advice may vary according to your own circumstances.

It is also important to know that some hospitals and birthing centres do not have a bath for you to use for pain relief. You can keep using other medical and non-medical methods of pain relief, such as movement or relaxation.

Different women have different preferences for pain relief during labour and birth, so it can be helpful to think ahead and discuss your plans with your doctor or midwife before the birth to make sure that your preferences will be suitable for your circumstances.

What is the role of the birth partner during the second stage of labour?

During the second stage of labour your birth partner can continue to support and look after you. This could be by giving you sips of water to drink when you are resting between contractions, or by helping you to change position if you would like to.

Your birth partner can give you emotional support and encouragement as you labour. Before labour, it can be helpful to discuss with your birth partner how you would like them to support you.

Your midwife will also continue to support and encourage you as they look after the health of you and your baby.

Why is it important to push during labour?

Pushing when you feel a contraction helps your labour to progress. The most effective way to push is to push 2 or 3 times each time you have a contraction. Give yourself time to breathe and rest between each one.

You only need to start pushing when you feel that you are ready and when your midwife has told you that you are fully dilated, meaning that you are in the second stage of labour. Your body is the best guide, and you will naturally feel this urge to push.

If you have had an epidural, you may not feel an urge to push or the sensation may not be as strong, so your midwife might help to guide you on when to push and for how long.

What happens as my baby is being born?

At the end of the second stage of labour, your baby is born. You midwife or doctor will support your baby as it is coming out of your vagina. With your consent, they may also apply a warm compress to the skin around your vagina (perineum) to help protect it from tears and to make you more comfortable.

If your midwife or doctor thinks it may be needed, they may ask for your permission to perform an episiotomy. This is a cut made in the skin around the vagina (perineum) to prevent the skin from tearing in an uncontrolled way. This may also be recommended if you are having an assisted delivery (with forceps or vacuum).

When your baby is born, your midwife will check that the baby does not need any immediate medical care. Then they will give you your baby to hold and cuddle. This is known as ’skin-to-skin’ contact, or kanagroo care, because your baby’s bare skin is in contact with yours. This helps to create a bond between you and your baby. Your midwife will cover you both with a warm blanket and you will have the opportunity to breastfeed your baby if you would like. Your midwife will stay close by in the first hour or so to support you and to make sure you and your newborn baby are well.

What happens if something goes wrong?

Every labour is unique, and sometimes things don’t go according to plan. You may have to adjust your birth plan if the situation calls for it.

There can be labour complications in which extra medical support is needed. With your consent, your midwife or doctor will work with you to make the best decisions for you and your baby.

Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.

Last reviewed: February 2022


Back To Top

Need more information?

Giving birth - first stage of labour

Find out what happens during the first stage of labour.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Giving birth - third stage of labour

The third stage of labour is immediately after the birth of your child.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Giving birth - stages of labour

You're unlikely to mistake the signs of labour when the time comes, but if you're in any doubt don't hesitate to contact your midwife.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Labour and birth using water

Information to help you make an informed choice for you and your baby about using water during the first stage of your labour or having a waterbirth.

Read more on WA Health website

Going to hospital or birthing centre

Whether you're planning to have your baby at home, in hospital or at a midwifery-led birth centre, you should get a few things ready at least two weeks before your due date.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Epidural

Epidural is highly effective local anaesthetic procedure includes injectind anaesthetic around the spinal nerves in your lower back.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Positions for labour and birth

Choosing your own positions for labour and giving birth can help you feel in control, reduce pain and open your pelvis to help the baby come out. Find out more.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Labour & birth: what to expect | Raising Children Network

Early labour signs include a show, waters breaking and pain. During labour, your contractions increase and your cervix dilates, so you can birth your baby.

Read more on raisingchildren.net.au website

Anatomy of pregnancy and birth - cervix

The cervix plays a crucial role throughout your pregnancy, protecting your growing baby and keeping them safe and secure in the uterus.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Pain during childbirth | HealthEngine Blog

Almost all women experience pain during childbirth which varies in severity. There are different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to treatment of pain during childbirth.

Read more on HealthEngine website

Call us and speak to a Maternal Child Health Nurse for personal advice and guidance.

Need further advice or guidance from our maternal child health nurses?

This information is for your general information and use only and is not intended to be used as medical advice and should not be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any medical condition, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes.

The information is not a substitute for independent professional advice and should not be used as an alternative to professional health care. If you have a particular medical problem, please consult a healthcare professional.

Except as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, this publication or any part of it may not be reproduced, altered, adapted, stored and/or distributed in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of Healthdirect Australia.